5 Programme for International Student Assessment: http://www.oecd.org/pisa.
5 uncompetitive state of American education: President Obama declared that “our generation’s Sputnik moment is now” in a speech on December 6 (New York Times, December 6, 2010), referring to challenges in education, innovation, global competition, infrastructure, and other areas. The educational activist Chester Finn, writing in the Wall Street Journal, called the release of the PISA results a “Sputnik moment” (December 8, 2010). The president followed up on the Sputnik theme in the State of the Union address (January 25, 2011).
5 the second Sputnik moment passed: These data are taken from transcriptions of all CNN programming during the indicated periods, gathered by Jon Willits.
5-6 A 2003 study: National Assessment of Adult Literacy (2003).
6 we are turning out fewer: For NAEP results, see http://www.nationsreportcard.gov.
7 a 2012 report: Council on Foreign Relations (2012).
7 “The evidence is everywhere”: David Remnick, “Into the Clear,” New Yorker, May 8, 2000.
7 Poverty is associated: General Accounting Office (2007).
8 Ron Gronkowski: “Gronkowski Talks ‘Mockingbird’ and Dancing on Kimmel,” Boston Globe, https://goo.gl/hyllM9. In an earlier era, baseball player Pete Rose was said to have read one book in his life, his autobiography (Ira Berkow, “Pain and Joy of Life as Athlete’s Wife,” New York Times, May 24, 1981).
8 links to allow: It may be more convenient to use the clickable links that are listed by chapter on seidenbergreading.net. Demos, pictures, and other material are also there.
8 the ugly: Hayes, Wolfer, & Wolfe (1996).
9 National Endowment for the Arts: National Endowment for the Arts (2004); on multiple literacies, see “Standards for the 21st-Century Learner,” American Association of School Librarians. Download PDF.
12 late African Grey parrot: The way that Alex learned was sadly unlike how children learn: see “Alex the Parrot,” video uploaded to YouTube by Professional_Talker, June 9, 2008, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ldYkFdu5FJk.
12 Minnesota children’s low levels: Garrison Keillor, “Where’s St. Michael When You Really Need Him?,” A Prairie Home Companion, January 29, 2008. http://prairiehome.publicradio.org/features/deskofgk/2008/01/29.shtml.